When preparing a baby for adulthood, it is important for parents to pay special attention to personal development, because if the moment is missed, it will be almost impossible to catch up. The child may develop self-doubt. Therefore, it is not enough to teach him to read and know the count, it is extremely important to pay attention to personal development, which is influenced by the environment.
WHAT IS INCLUDED IN PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT?
Parents and kindergarten teachers should pay attention to the following elements of the child’s personality development:
- objective self-esteem;
- moral standards;
- motives of incentive activity;
- feelings and emotions;
- aesthetic perception.
Each element must be given special attention, only, in this case, the child will grow up as a harmonious and comprehensively developed personality, ready for productive activity.
Personal development is a complex process that obeys certain laws, but at the same time takes place individually. Therefore, the task of parents is to help the child find his own path, but not to impose on him their aspirations, their interests.
At 3-4 years old, the child enters a new period for him, begins to attend daycare and teachers take part in his upbringing. Moreover, if the baby was not prepared for such a change, he will have a so-called “crisis of three years”.
Once among his peers, the baby will find himself in a new environment for him. In this period, it is customary to distinguish three stages:
- Adaptation – getting used to new behaviours and daily routine.
- Individualization. Each kid finds something of his own, tries to stand out from among his peers, using for this either his achievements or leprosy and pampering.
- Integration. The child tries to express his uniqueness, while adults are ready to accept him that way.
Often, the baby imitates, both his parents and peers, the heroes of the fairy tales he listened to and watched cartoons. The child, due to his age specificity, is not able to understand much, therefore it is important for parents to explain to him the norms of behaviour and the need to comply with them in time.
FEATURES OF SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS
Self-awareness is a child’s understanding of himself, his qualities, relations with the surrounding reality. The most striking form of self-awareness is self-esteem when a baby evaluates his achievements, personal qualities and capabilities. Initially, the baby uses the position of others. If the mother constantly tells the child that he is great, it is this position that will be deposited with him. In addition, the preschooler’s self-awareness should include:
- understanding of one’s gender, and appropriate behaviour;
- understanding of their place in the world, their own social position, this happens at the beginning of school.
The child develops new values, experiences, his inner life becomes more complicated, his actions and behavior change.
Most often, those children who attended daycare are distinguished by high self-esteem, since their activities were coordinated by a professional teacher and directed along the necessary channel. At the same time, the role of parents in raising children is paramount.
SPECIFIC CHILDREN’S ASSESSMENT AND SELF-ASSESSMENT
Children have not yet developed the ability to evaluate peers, so they use simplified categories and equate some qualities with others. For example:
- bad – this is disobedient and inattentive, and stupid;
- good – obedient, disciplined, diligent.
From the age of 5, children begin to use words more accurately, distinguishing between the different manifestations of “good” and “bad”.
Children find it difficult to evaluate themselves, both positively and negatively. They most often give themselves positive assessments and try to disguise their shortcomings in naive ways. At the same time, experts note that if a child knows how to do something well, for example, run, read, knows the count, then he will feel confident in self-esteem, often unjustifiably exaggerating it. The preschool period is the time for the child to realize his own weaknesses.
There are situations when children cannot objectively assess themselves, while they highlight overestimated and underestimated self-esteem.
- With low self-esteem, the child is distinguished by modesty, lack of confidence in his abilities. Most often, the fact that a child has such a situation is to blame for the parents, who constantly accused him of a lack of effort or a poor result.
- High self-esteem is the exact opposite. The child is sure that he has those qualities that in fact he does not have, believes that any of his work is worthy of all praise, the best. He may be indignant and offended if one of the adults does not agree with this.
Both are the result of improper upbringing.
DEVELOPMENT OF SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS, SELF-ASSESSMENT
The child looks at the relationship between the parents and uses this information as a “foundation” for the formation of their own value system. In addition, boys often take an example from their fathers, girls – from their mothers, imitating them. If the parents are too strict with the child, he will have low self-esteem, lack of confidence in his own strength.
On the contrary, overprotection and the desire to indulge all the whims is the reason for overestimated self-esteem, an unjustifiably high idea of one’s own significance. And it will be difficult for such a kid to adapt in the future. So, at school, from everyone’s favourite, he will suddenly become the most ordinary child.
A family in which the “policy of non-interference” was used will become the basis for the emergence of a strong and independent personality, who is used to achieving everything on his own but is not capable of compassion, feelings, empathy. Of course, there are exceptions due to the character and temperament of the baby, but the influence of the family is very strong.
The most productive type of family relationship is cooperation, through which the child becomes sincere, responsive and hardworking.
INFLUENCE OF SOCIETY
For a toddler under 2 years of age, his family and a few closest circle of friends and nannies are of particular importance. However, the older he becomes, the more members of society he has to contact. First, these are the peers with whom he plays on the playgrounds, then the educators and other children in the group. The number of rules to be followed is increasing.
The first friends appear, who also influence the personal development of the child. Parents need to always be there, be ready to help, without imposing their position.
This is an important stage, because if a child does not comply with the norms of morality accepted in society, then it will be difficult for him to build relationships with other members of society. You should pay attention to the following points:
- Attitude towards the world, striving for justice.
- Attitude towards people. Gradually, the baby realizes himself as a member of a huge team, realizes that he must help others, but not allow himself to be bullied.
- The correct attitude to work. In any work, you must observe discipline, carry out your duties carefully.
- Relationship to material values, nature. It is important to protect nature, respect animals and plants, respect other people’s work, and do not litter on the street.
- Correct attitude towards yourself. It is important to cultivate self-esteem in a child, but he should not put himself above others.
- Systematic regular work, conversations, explaining to the child why it is necessary to act this way and not otherwise will help to achieve this. Parents are required to set a positive example.
For the formation of a child as a harmonious personality, the development of his emotional-volitional sphere is also important, therefore, parents should teach the baby to feel. Fairy tales and cartoons will help, according to the plots of which you should talk with the baby, find out his impressions, understand whether he correctly figured out the feelings of the character.
From the age of 4, children understand well the manifestations of emotions, they know that some of their actions will cause discontent in an adult, in addition, higher feelings are being formed. It is important for parents now to demonstrate their love, to be attentive to the baby, this will help create a positive attitude.